Written by: Jane Updated 21st December 2017 and 17 August 2018.
Choosing a Chinese Bible involves not only choosing a version, but choosing a script and other factors as well. These are identified by a range of symbols that appear with the abbreviation for the name of the Bible translation.
Here are some of the commonly seen abbreviations:
- Chinese Union Version: CUV, CUVS, CUVT, CUVMPS, CUVMPT
- Revised Chinese Union Version: RCUV, RCUVS, RCUVT
- Chinese New Version: NCV, NCVS, NCVT or CNV, CNVS, CNVT
- Chinese Contemporary Bible: CCB
- Chinese Standard Bible: CSB, CSBS, CSBT
In addition, sometimes after the abbreviation one of the following words is used:
- Shangdi (or Shangti)
This document aims to explain the different symbols used, and issues to be considered, so a more informed decision can be made when recommending a Bible version.
1. Simplified (???) vs Traditional Script (???)
The simplified Chinese script is used in mainland China and Singapore. The traditional script is used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and by Chinese communities in other parts of SE Asia and the world. When looking at the abbreviation for a Chinese Bible translation, normally an ‘S’ is added at the end to denote the simplified script, and a ‘T’ to denote the traditional script (see lists above). We recommend a person use the script that they are most comfortable reading.
2. “Shen” Edition (??) vs “Shangdi” Edition (???)
Many of the Chinese Bible translations are available in two editions, the difference being which word is used in translation for ‘God’ (‘Shen’ or ‘Shangdi’ /’Shangti’). Some protestant Christians used to have a strong preference for one or the other word, but in recent years this generally is less divisive an issue. We recommend people use the version that their home church uses.
The most commonly used Bible in China is the Union Version, CUV, ???. However, this translation uses older language forms and many people who are new to Bible reading find it difficult to understand (a little like English speakers reading the King James Version for the first time). There are several newer versions that are easier to understand. In mainland China, the Union Version and Today’s Chinese Version are legally produced. Other versions need to be carried in from overseas, and may be confiscated at the border. The rise of smartphone and computer use, however, has meant that most versions are now readily available from within China. The CNV is one of the most popular newer versions.
Consideration needs to be also made for what the person’s home church uses. Many churches in mainland China have a strong attachment to the Union Version. When this is the case, we recommend that a new believer read both a newer version (such as the NCV) and the Union Version in parallel. This way they can both understand the Bible text itself and learn to read the more literary form used by their brothers and sisters.
Some details of common translations are:
Chinese Union Version, ???, CUV; and
Revised Chinese Union Version, ??????, RCUV
The CUV was first published in 1919, and the text is now in the public domain. It is the most commonly used Chinese translation for Protestants. It “was translated by a panel with members from many different Protestant denominations, using the English Revised Version as a basis and original manuscripts for crosschecking.” (Wikipedia, 2015)
Spoken Chinese has changed since 1919 so many modern readers find this version hard to understand. In addition, many of the characters used in the original CUV do not appear in commonly available modern Chinese dictionaries. A Revised Chinese Union Version (??????, RCUV) was completed in 2006 (New Testament) and 2010 (entire Bible) that aimed at updating some of the language to reflect today’s language usage while keeping as much of the original translation style as possible. (Hong Kong Bible Society, 2016)
In addition to this, there are versions of the CUV with modern punctuation, denoted by the letters ‘MP’ (for Modern Punctuation) or ‘NP’ (for New Punctuation), e.g. CUVMPS is the Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation Simplified script
Chinese New Version, ???, CNV
Abbreviated CNV (originally NCV but later changed due to confusion with the abbreviation used for English New Century Version).
- Simplified Chinese: ???, CNVS (or NCVS)
- Traditional Chinese: ???, CNVT (or NCVT)
CNV was completed in 1992 by the Worldwide Bible Society with the assistance of the Lockman Foundation.
“This is the first Chinese Bible translated by Chinese Biblical scholars directly from the Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic languages into modern Chinese ever in the history of the Chinese churches…was a joint effort of a team of around 100 prominent Chinese Bible scholars and language scholars from around the world.” (Bible Gateway, 2016)
The CNV is one of the most popular versions of the Bible in China.
Chinese Contemporary Bible, ????, CCB
Also called the Chinese Living Bible.
Translated by the International Bible Society of Colorado Springs.
Translated from the original languages and designed for a general audience with a seventh grade education or above. Completed in October 2010. (Biblica, 2014)
Chinese New Living Translation, ?????
A dynamic equivalent Chinese Bible. The base text is the English New Living Translation with comparison with the Greek originals.
Chinese Standard Bible, ??????, CSB
Produced in 2009 by Global Bible Initiative and Holman Bible Publishers. Currently, this translation only contains the New Testament.
“The goals of this translation are:
- To provide Chinese-speaking people across the world with an accurate, readable Bible in contemporary Chinese
- To give those who love God’s Word a text that has numerous reader helps, is visually attractive on the page, and is appealing when heard
- To equip serious Bible students with an accurate translation for personal study, private devotions, and memorization
To affirm the authority of Scripture as God’s Word and to champion its absolute truth against social or cultural agendas that would compromise its accuracy. ” (Global Bible Institute, 2015)
Chinese Recovery Version? ???
This is used by the “Local Church” movement in Taiwan, and contains commentary notes written by Witness Lee. It is said the translation is good, but some Christians say the commentary notes are questionable – this movement is considered by some as a cult. (Intervarsity International Student Ministry, 2016) (Lucy Hsu and Yii-Shyun Lin, 2016)
Translations we do not recommend:
Chinese Pastoral Bible, ????
The Chinese edition of the Christian Community Bible, published in China by Amity Printing Company. This translation has received criticism over several significant issues, and is not generally recommended for lay people. (“Pastoral Bible (Chinese),” 2014)
New World Translation, NWT
Published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, used by Jehovah’s Witnesses.
Bible Gateway. (2016). Chinese New Version (Simplified) (CNVS) – Version Information – BibleGateway.com. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from https://www.biblegateway.com/versions/Chinese-New-Version-Simplified-CNVS/
Biblica. (2014). Chinese Contemporary Bible (2010). Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.biblica.com/en-us/bible/bible-versions/chinese-contemporary-bible-2010/
Global Bible Institute. (2015). Chinese Standard Bible. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://chinesestandardbible.com
Hong Kong Bible Society. (2016). Revised Chinese Union Version> Revision Principles and Process. Retrieved August 13, 2016, from http://www.hkbs.org.hk/en/content/14-revised-chinese-union-version3
Intervarsity International Student Ministry. (2016). Analysis of Various Translations of the Chinese Bible. Retrieved from http://ism.intervarsity.org/resource/analysis-various-translations-chinese-bible
Lucy Hsu and Yii-Shyun Lin. (2016, January 21). An Explanation of the Different Chinese Bibles. Link to article: An Explanation of the Different Chinese Bibles
Pastoral Bible (Chinese). (2018). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastoral_Bible_(Chinese)
Wikipedia. (2015, June 18). Chinese Union Version. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Union_Version